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Our handheld 'ferrobotic' diagnostic platform decentralizes viral testing for pandemic preparedness (Nature  2022)

Our mission at Interconnected & Integrated Bioelectronics Lab (I²BL) is to realize personalized medicine for everyone! We create new classes of implantable, wearable, and mobile bioelectronics that acquire highly specific information about our body’s dynamic chemistry (e.g., by measuring circulating biomarker molecules) and provide appropriate feedback (e.g., precision dosing). To create these bioelectronics: 1) we engineer materials with specialized properties (e.g., soft, strain-insensitive, stimuli-responsive); 2) we develop micro/nanoscale actuation and sensing methodologies to control, isolate, and sense a spectrum of biomarkers (e.g., electrochemical sensors to measure metabolites, electrolytes, nutrients, hormones, and pharmaceuticals); and 3) we fabricate microfluidic, microneedle, flexible, and/or stretchable devices to interface with biological entities such as biofluid and tissue. In our approach, we emphasize solutions that are simple, low-cost, and scalable, all while providing new functionalities to bypass performance boundaries of conventional biomedical tools. By integrating these solutions into autonomous bioanalytical platforms and collaborating closely with prominent clinical experts and medical centers, we translate our technologies in clinical applications.


Ubiquitous Intelligent Bioelectronics to Personalize Medicine for Everyone!


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A mediator-free wearable sensing system is devised to bypass the limitations of conventional enzymatic sensors in terms of susceptibility to dynamic concentration variation of ionic species and poor operational stability.

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A Design Framework and Sensing System for Non-invasive Wearable Electroactive Drug Monitoring

A ferrorobotic system for automated microfluidic logistics: ferrobots can be programmed to perform massively parallelized and sequential fluidic operations at small length scales in a collaborative manner.

A distributed terminal-based sensing network is demonstrated, which capitalizes on the fingertip for simultaneous non-invasive biomarker data sampling and user identification.

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